Tinjauan Sekuritisasi dalam Dinamika Hubungan Arab Saudi dengan Muslim Brotherhood Pasca-Arab Spring

  • Rifan Kalbuadi Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: Muslim Brotherhood, Saudi Arabia, security threat, Securitization Theory

Abstract

In March 2014, Saudi Arabia, through a royal decree, designated the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) as a terrorist organization. This decision has influenced the geopolitical dynamics of the Middle East to this day as Saudi Arabia is one of the strongest actors in the region. The designation of MB as a terrorist organization was a response from the Saudi government to MB's involvement in the Arab Spring 2011 and the Saudi allegations of MB's involvement in the removal of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and various anti-government protests that spread in several Middle Eastern countries. The Saudis did not always see MB as a threat. There was a time when the relationship between the two had occurred in harmony so that in this case, there had been a shift in perception. This paper analyzes this phenomenon using the theory of securitization by including the components of securitization as a framework for analysis. The author argues that the strengthening of MB on the political scene of the Middle East with its efforts to implement modernist Muslim ideology and offer democracy through a revolution is the cause of the shift in the perception of Saudi Arabia towards MB.

References

Andriasanti, L. (2015). Identitas Islam Moderat dalam Kebijakan Luar Negeri Indonesia. Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional, [online] 16(1), 84–101. Dalam: https://doi.org/10.7454/global.v16i1.7 [diakses 15 Juni 2020].

Al-Anani, K. (2016). Inside the Muslim Brotherhood: Religion, Identity, and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Al-Rasheed, M. (2013). Saudi Arabia: Local and Regional Challenges. Contemporary Arab Affairs, [online] 6(1), 28–40. Dalam: https://online.ucpress.edu/caa/article/6/1/28/26062/Saudi-Arabia-local-and-regional-challenges. [Diakses 15 Juni 2020].

Alterman, J. and McSants, W. (2015). Saudi Arabia: Islamists Rising and Falling, in Religious Radicalism after the Arab Uprisings. [online] Center for Strategic and International Studies. Dalam: https://www.csis.org/analysis/saudi-arabia-islamists-rising-and-falling [Diakses 15 Juni 2020].

Althaydi, M. (2017). Has 'Sahwa' ended in Saudi Arabia? Al Arabiya, [online]. Dalam: https://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/news/middle-east/2017/11/03/Has-Sahwa-ended-in-Saudi-Arabia- [Diakses 14 Oktober 2020].

Amlôt, M. (2020). Qatar Caused Gulf Boycott by Demanding out of Riyadh Agreement: WTO Report. Al Arabiya, [online]. Dalam: https://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/gulf/2020/06/18/Qatar-caused-Gulf-boycott-by-demanding-out-of-Riyadh-Agreement-WTO-report [Diakses 18 Juni 2020].

Ataman, M. (2003). The Impact of Non-State Actors on World Politics: A Challenge to Nation-States. Turkish Journal of International Relations, [online] 2 (1), 42-66. Dalam: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Impact-of-Non-State-Actors-on-World-Politics%3A-A Ataman/d743da3b82a11163879a3b3e6775e6f76da77ba6 [Diakses 15 Juni 2020]

BBC. (2027). Saudi Arabia arrests clerics in crackdown on dissent. [online]. Dalam: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-41260543. [diakses 5 Desember 2020]

Balzacq, T. (2011). Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve. New York: Routledge.

Balzacq, T., Léonard, S., & Ruzicka, J. (2016). ̳Securitization Revisited: Theory and Cases. International Relations, [online] 30(4), 494–531. Dalam: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0047117815596590 [Diakses 15 Juni 2020].

Buzan, B., Wæver, O., Wilde, Jaap de. (1998) Security A New Framework for Analysis. London:Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Charrett, C. (2009). A Critical Application of Securitization Theory: Overcoming the Normative Dilemma of Writing Security. [online] International Catalan Institute for Peace. Dalam: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1884149 [Diakses 15 Juni 2020].

Charountaki, M. (2018): State and Non-state Interactions in International Relations:British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies [online]. 45(2):1-15 Dalam: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13530194.2018.1430530 [Diakses 12 Juni 2020]

Cleveland W.L. (2008). A History of The Modern Middle East. Ed.4. Philadelphia: Westview Press.

Dalacoura, K. (2001). Islamist Movements as Non-state Actors and their Relevance to International Relations. Dalam: D. Josselin and W. Wallace, eds. Non-state Actors in World Politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 235–248.

Darwich, M. (2017). Creating The Enemy, Constructing The Threat: The Diffusion of Repression Against The Muslim Brotherhood in The Middle East. Democratization [online], 24(7), 1289-1306. Dalam https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2017.1307824 [Diakses 12 Juni 2020].

El-Ghobashy, M. (2005). The Metamorphosis of the Egyptian Muslim Brothers. International Journal of Middle East Studies, [online] 37(3), 373–395. Dalam: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3880106 [Diakses 15 Oktober 2020].

Emmers, R. (2004). Non-Traditional Security in the Asia Pacific: The Dynamics of Securitization. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish International.

Gallarotti, G., & Al-Filali, I. Y. (2012). Saudi Arabia’s Soft Power. International Studies [online], 49(3-4), 233-261. Dalam https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0020881714532707 [Diakses 12 Juni 2020].

Gause, F.G III. (2011a). Saudi Arabia’s Regional Security Strategy. Dalam: Mehran Kamrava. In International Politics of the Persian Gulf. New York: Syracuse University Press.

Gause, F. G. III. (2011b). Saudi Arabia in the New Middle East. [online], Council on Foreign Relations. Dalam: https://www.cfr.org/report/saudi-arabia-new-middle-east [Diakses 5 Juli 2020].

Gaver, C. (2020). What are the Riyadh Agreements? [online], Blog of the European Journal of International Law . Dalam: https://www.ejiltalk.org/what-are-the-riyadh-agreements [Diakses 5 Juli 2020].

Hedges, M. dan Cafiero, G. (2017). The GCC and the Muslim Brotherhood: What Does the Future Hold? Middle East Policy Council, [online] 24 (1). Dalam https://mepc.org/journal/gcc-and-muslim-brotherhood-what-does-future-hold [Diakses 5 Juli 2020].

Ibrahim, A. (2019). What is Sahwa, the Awakening movement under pressure in Saudi? Aljazeera, [online]. Dalam: https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2019/6/5/what-is-sahwa-the-awakening-movement-under-pressure-in-saudi [Diakses 14 Oktober 2020].

Kirkpatrick, D. (2014). Saudis Put Terrorist Label on Muslim Brotherhood. New York Times, [online]. Dalam https://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/08/world/middleeast/saudis-put-terrorist-label-on-muslim-brotherhood.html [Diakses 12 Juni 2020].

Kurniawan, Y. (2018). The Politics of Securitization in Democratic Indonesia. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lacroix, S. (2014). Saudi Arabia's Muslim Brotherhood Predicament. Washington Post, [online]. Dalam: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2014/03/20/saudi-arabias-muslim-brotherhood-predicament/ [Diakses 2 Juli 2020].

Lacroix, S. (2011). Awakening Islam. The Politics of Religious Dissent. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Lauzière, H. (2016). The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lenz-Raymann, K. (2014). Securitization of Islam: A Vicious Circle. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag.

Leiken, R. S. and Brooke, S. (2007). The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood. [online], Council on Foreign Relations. Dalam: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2007-03-01/moderate-muslim-brotherhood.

Macris, J. R. (2016). Investigating the ties between Muhammed ibn Abd al-Wahhab, early Wahhabism, and ISIS. Journal of the Middle East and Africa, [online] 7(3), 239-255. Dalam: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21520844.2016.1227929 [Diakses 15 Oktober 2020].

Marcus, J. (2019). Why Saudi Arabia and Iran are bitter rivals. BBC, [online]. Dalam: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-42008809. [Diakses 14 Oktober 2020].

Matthiesen, T. (2015) ‘The Domestic Sources of Saudi Foreign Policy: Islamists and the State in The Wake of the Arab Uprisings. [online], Brooking Institute. Dalam: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Saudi-Arabia_Matthiesen_FINALv.pdf [Diakses 14 Oktober 2020].

Nuruzzaman, M. (2013). Politics, Economics and Saudi Military Intervention in Bahrain’, Journal of Contemporary Asia [online] 43(2), pp. 363–378. Dalam: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00472336.2012.759406 [Diakses 14 Oktober 2020]

Nordland, R. (2013). Saudi Arabia Promises to Aid Egypt's Regime. New York Times, [online] Dalam: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/20/world/middleeast/saudi-arabia-vows-to-back-egypts-rulers.html [Diakses 13 Juni 2020].

Sezer (2013). Securitization of Energy Through The Lenses of Copenhagen School. West East Journal of Social Sciences, [online], 2(2). Dalam: https://www.westeastinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/ORL13-155-Sezer-Ozcan-Full-Paper.pdf [Diakses 10 Juni 2020].

Stengel, F. dan Baumann, R. (2017). Non-State Actors and Foreign Policy. Dalam: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis, Oxford University Press.

Stritzel, H. (2014). Security in Translation: Securitization Theory and The Localization of Threat. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Taufika, R. (2020). Latent Securitisation of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing in Indonesia. Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional, [online] 22(1), 26-53. Dalam: http://global.ir.fisip.ui.ac.id/index.php/global/article/view/488 [Diakses 10 Juni 2020].

Taylor, G. (2018). Jamal Khashoggi killing sparked by Muslim Brotherhood ties. The Washington Post. [online]. Dalam https://apnews.com/article/f6d02c4d90ac9d00f3fea5d29c7400db [diakses 5 Desember 2020].

Trager, E. (2017). The Muslim Brotherhood Is the Root of the Qatar Crisis. The Atlantic, [online]. Dalam: https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/07/muslim-brotherhood-qatar/532380/ [Diakses 20 Juni 2020].

Vermonte, P. J. (2003). Isu Terorisme Dan Human Security: Implikasi Terhadap Studi Dan Kebijakan Keamanan. Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional, [online]. 5(2), 27-26. Dalam: https://doi.org/10.7454/global.v5i2.211. [Diakses 20 Juni 2020].

Vuori, J.A. (2008). Illocutionary Logic and Strands of Securitization: Applying the Theory of Securitization to the Study of Non-Democratic Political Orders. European Journal of International Relations, [online] 14 (1). Dalam: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1354066107087767 [Diakses 9 Juni 2020].

Weenink, A. W. (2001). The Relevance of Being Important or the Importance of Being Relevent? State and Non-state Actors in International Relations Theory. Dalam: B. Arts, M. Noortmann, R. Reinalda, eds., Non-State Actors in International Relations. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Wickham, C. R. (2015). Muslim Brotherhood - Evolution of an Islamist Movement. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Wynbrandt, J. (2010). A Brief History of Saudi Arabia. New York: Facts On File.

Zahid, M. (2010). Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt's Succession Crisis: The Politics of Liberalisation and Reform in the Middle East. New York: I.B. Tauris.

Zollner, B. H. (2011). The Muslim Brotherhood: Hasan al-Hudaybi and Ideology. London: Routledge.

Published
2020-12-20
How to Cite
KalbuadiR. (2020). Tinjauan Sekuritisasi dalam Dinamika Hubungan Arab Saudi dengan Muslim Brotherhood Pasca-Arab Spring. Jurnal ICMES, 4(2), 125-147. https://doi.org/10.35748/jurnalicmes.v4i2.79